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However the approximate number of the confederate soldiers is estimated to be between , and 1,, The casualty figures regarding the confederate army are also unreliable and incomplete. It has been estimated that more than 94, were either killed or wounded in the battle and about 31, deaths occurred in the Union prison camps.
Johnston, surrendered officially. The remaining forces of the Confederate surrendered between 16 th of April and 5 th of May, , as President Jefferson Davis was captured by the union forces on 10 th May, The seven slavery permitting states of lower south seceded and formed the Confederate State before Lincoln became the president of the United States on March 4 th This Confederate seized the properties and federal forts within the borders.
Lincoln wanted to take back the forts, especially the Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Thus the civil war became inevitable. The troops of the Confederate government under the command of General P.
Beauregard attacked Fort Sumter on April 12—13, , forcing its surrender on April 14, under the order from their president Jefferson Davis. The northern states were outraged by this activity and demanded war on the confederate states. On April 15th, Lincoln called all the states to send troops to recapture the forts, to end the rebellion and preserve the unity of the country.
Four more states joined the Confederate States of America and both sides began to gather volunteers and armies for their purposes. The Confederate congress gave permission for a Confederate army, which was supposed to be patterned like the U.
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S Army. This consisted of a small regular army which is permanent and a large provisional force for the time of war.
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The provisional volunteer army came into existence with the act passed by the Confederate Congress on February 28 th The act for the permanent regular army was passed on March 6 th However the confederate regular army was not organized properly. This army started organizing on April 27 th , All the men, including the conscripts and volunteers wanted to join this organization as the officers of this army was able to achieve higher ranks in this army than they could attain in the Regular Army.
The confederates were intended of disbanding the provisional army if they achieved success in the war. This army was allowed to include as many as 15, men, including army officers. However, this number has never been achieved by this force. Lee, who were high ranked enrolled in ACSA to make sure that they were above the militia officers. The ACSA however, never became a functional unit. The operations of the Confederate States Army were controlled and administered by the Confederate States War Department, which was established by the Confederate Provisional Congress by an act on February 21 st , On March 8 th , the Confederate Congress passed a law that endorsed Davis to issue proclamations to call up about , men.
On March 9 th The War Department asked for 8, volunteers and on April 8 th , for 20, volunteers. Davis anticipated an army of , soldiers in his message to Congress on the 29th. The Confederacy called for , volunteers on 8 th of August to serve for one or three years. There is no definite information regarding the total strength of the Confederate States Army, because of the destruction of the records in the central repository in Richmond during The estimate of the total men ranges from , to 2,, during the time of the war.
During the period from to the following calls for the men were requested. The Confederate State Army lacked a formal military commander or general during the early stages of the war. Jefferson Davis, the president of the confederate himself was a former U. S army officer and U. S state secretary of War. Jefferson provided the direction for the army as the commander-in chief. Some of the prominent men were attributed different degrees of control on the army. When the confederate congress established the war department on February 21st, the design of the army was based on the structure of the U.
S army. Like the Federal Army the Confederate Army also had professional and political generals. The ranks in the confederate army are similar to that of the U.
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S Army in its design and seniority of the positions. The general staff for the army consisted of adjutant general, a quartermaster general, a commissary general, and a surgeon general. The Confederate Army initially commissioned only brigadier generals in the volunteer and regular army services; the Confederate Congress later passed a legislation which allowed for the appointment of major generals as well as generals.
This legislation provided clear and distinct seniority over the existing major generals in the various state armies. When lieutenant generals were authorized, on September 18 th , , the Confederate States Army had four ranks of general officers; they were brigadier general, major general, lieutenant general, and general in the increasing order of rank. Jefferson Davis controlled the appointment to the various grades of general. The Confederacy failed in the strategic operation due to lack of centralized control. There were multiple army groups acting to achieve common objectives.
Many senior military leaders of the confederacy were from the U. S Army and were ready to fight against the country.
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President Lincoln was annoyed by such act of the men who were originally expected to love and protect the country. The Confederate soldiers of the United States of America were also organized by military specialty like the Union Soldiers and it included cavalry, artillery and infantry. There were several armies in the Confederate States Army and only a few soldiers constituted a platoon or a squad.
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The smallest number of army consisted of about soldiers. A regiment comprised of 10 companies which means that a regiment comprised of men. But, in due course most of the regiments were reduced to a greater extent as causalities and diseases started to take its toll. In fact, new regiments started to form and replacements did not want to be part of the existing army. The regiments were raised by every state in the United States and were represented in this format, number and state. For e. A battalion was the word utilized to represent a regiment size unit.
A brigade constituted of four regiments and transfer of regiments between brigades was not often done. An army division was constituted by two to four brigades and two to four brigades formed a corp. Two to four corps together forms an army. There were times when a single corps was used to operate separately as a small army. A captain commanded a company and it had two or more lieutenants.
The colonels commanded the regiments and the second officer in command was the lieutenant colonel. The following is the rank structure of the Confederate States. It has the General as the commanding officer, followed by a Colonel who is assisted by a Lieutenant Colonel. A Major is the next person in the hierarchy followed by the Captain who commands the First Lieutenant and Second Lieutenant. All the four grades of General wore the same insignia.
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Braid designs were worn by the officers on the sleeves and kepi of their uniform. The width of the lines of the design helped in knowing the rank of the officer. The infantry, cavalry and the artillery were given blue, yellow and red branch colors respectively as the chevron colors.